Exothermic Welding Process
Amiable Impex is the Manufacturer of Exothermic Welding Powder, Exothermic Graphite Mold and Exothermic Weld Accessories.

Exothermic Welding Procedure: A Guide to Reliable Connections

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Exothermic welding, also known as thermite welding, is a cutting-edge technique that creates a molecular bond between two or more metallic conductors through a chemical reaction. This process significantly enhances the mechanical, electrical, and anti-corrosive properties of the connections, making it the superior choice over traditional mechanical connections. It is the most effective method for creating permanent, reliable, and high-conductivity connections essential for any earthing system.

Exothermic Welding Procedure:

1. Preparation:
  • Clean the surfaces of the conductors that will be joined to ensure they are free from dirt, grease, and oxide layers.
  • Align the conductors properly in the exothermic welding mold.
2. Mold Setup:
  • Place the conductors securely in a graphite mold designed for exothermic welding.
  • Ensure that the mold is placed on a non-combustible surface or a fireproof base to handle the heat generated.
3. Exothermic Welding Powder:
  • Measure and pour the correct amount of exothermic welding powder into the mold around the conductors.
  • Distribute the powder evenly to ensure a uniform reaction and proper bonding.
4. Ignition:
  • Use an exothermic welding igniter to initiate the chemical reaction within the mold.
  • The reaction between the aluminum powder and copper oxide generates intense heat (exceeding 1,300°C) that melts the copper and forms a molten metal.
5. Reaction and Bonding:
  • Allow the exothermic reaction to proceed and complete, ensuring that the molten metal fills the mold cavity completely.
  • This creates a strong, permanent, and electrically conductive bond between the conductors.
6. Cooling:
  • Allow the mold and the welded joint to cool naturally within the mold for the specified duration (usually a few minutes).
  • Do not disturb the mold during this cooling period to ensure a solid and uniform joint.
7. Finishing:
  • After cooling, carefully remove the mold.
  • Clean any residual slag or excess material from the welded joint to achieve a smooth finish.
8. Inspection:
  • Inspect the completed weld joint for quality, ensuring there are no cracks or imperfections.
  • Conduct electrical testing if required to verify the integrity and conductivity of the weld.
9. Safety:
  • Throughout the process, follow safety protocols, including wearing appropriate protective gear and ensuring proper ventilation in the workspace.


Key Features of Exothermic Welds
  • Durability: They are highly durable and resistant to environmental factors, making them ideal for long-term applications.

  • Conductivity: The welds exhibit excellent electrical conductivity, ensuring minimal resistance in electrical connections.

  • Corrosion Resistance: Due to the absence of dissimilar metals, exothermic weld joints are resistant to corrosion, even in harsh environments.

  • Strength: The molecular bond formed in the welding process results in a mechanically strong joint that can withstand significant stress and strain.

  • Consistent Performance: Exothermic welds maintain stable electrical and mechanical properties over time, ensuring reliable operation.

  • Versatility: They are suitable for various materials including copper cables, welding tapes, brass, stainless steel, and copper-coated steel earth rods.

  • Permanent Connection: Once welded, the connection is permanent and robust, minimizing maintenance needs.

  • Safety: The welding process is safe and efficient, adhering to industry standards for electrical and structural integrity.

Exothermic welding is widely employed in critical applications such as telecommunications, railways, industrial facilities, and grounding systems, where reliability and longevity are paramount.

When Exothermic Welding Is Used

Applications of Exothermic Welding

Exothermic welding is widely used in various industries and applications, including:

  • Electrical Grounding: Essential for creating reliable and long-lasting grounding connections in electrical systems.
  • Railroad Construction: Used to join railway tracks, ensuring strong and durable connections.
  • Telecommunications: Provides robust bonding for grounding systems in communication networks.
  • Lightning Protection: Ensures effective grounding of lightning protection systems.
  • Cathodic Protection: Utilized in protecting underground pipelines and structures from corrosion.
  • Automotive and Aerospace: Employed in the manufacturing of vehicles and aircraft for creating reliable electrical connections.

Exothermic Welding Process

Step 1: Safety Precautions

  • Always wear protective safety glasses and gloves when handling exothermic welding materials.

Step 2: Gather Equipment

  • Collect all necessary materials and equipment for the specific type of connection. This includes a graphite mold, handle clamp, welding material, natural bristle brush for mold cleaning, wire brush for preparing conductors, flint igniter, and propane torch. Ensure the graphite mold is intact to prevent leakage of molten metal.

Step 3: Prepare Handle Clamp

  • Insert the handle clamp into the pre-drilled holes on the mold with proper orientation for the thumbscrews.

Step 4: Secure Mold

  • Tighten the thumbscrews on the clamp to securely fasten the mold.

Step 5: Adjust Handle Clamp

  • Close the grips of the handle clamp firmly to seal the mold, making necessary adjustments for a tight fit.

Step 6: Prepare Conductors

  • Clean and dry the materials to be welded (cable, rod, tape) using the included brush. Remove oxide layers and surface impurities. Preheat the graphite mold with a gas torch to eliminate moisture absorption, ensuring a solid weld. If welding consecutively within 15 minutes, re-heating the mold may be unnecessary.

Step 7: Position Conductors

  • Place the conductors into the mold cavity and secure the handle clamps to prevent material leakage during the welding reaction. Apply sealing compound to any gaps to avoid powder dispersion during the reaction.

Step 8: Seal Tap Hole

  • Block the tap hole with a metallic disk to contain the welding mixture.

Step 9: Prepare Welding Mixture

  • Empty the contents of the welding mixture package into the mold.

Step 10: Apply Starting Powder

  • Sprinkle 50% of the starting powder over the exothermic weld powder without mixing. Close the mold mouth, then apply the remaining 50% of starting powder near the small hole on top.

Step 11: Ignite

  • Use a flint igniter to ignite the starting powder on the mold’s surface or side.

Step 12: Reaction

  • Stand clear as the reaction takes place over 3-4 seconds.

Step 13: Open Mold and Clean

  • After at least 2 minutes, undo the handle grip and open the mold. Remove it from the joint and clean any slag from the weld using appropriate tools. Clean the mold cavities thoroughly. The mold can be reused immediately without additional heating.

Note: For continuous operation, use at least two molds on site. Allow cooled molds to be cleaned while the other is in use. Perform the task calmly and avoid rushing to ensure proper execution.


  • Always wear appropriate PPE, including gloves, safety goggles, and protective clothing.
  • Use a face shield to protect against sparks and molten metal splashes.
  • Ensure the work area is clean and free from flammable materials.
  • Set up welding operations in a well-ventilated area to avoid inhaling fumes.
  • Handle the weld metal powder and starting powder with care.
  • Store materials in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight.
  • Use only approved ignition methods and tools.
  • Stand clear of the mold during the ignition process to avoid burns.
  • Allow the weld to cool completely before handling.
  • Inspect the weld for quality and remove any slag or residues.
  • Conduct electrical conductivity testing or other required tests to ensure the weld’s integrity.

Important Safety Warnings

  • High Temperatures: The exothermic reaction produces extremely high temperatures. Handle with care to avoid burns and injuries.
  • Chemical Hazards: Exothermic welding involves the use of chemicals that can be hazardous if not handled properly.
  • Explosion Risk: Improper handling or mixing of the weld metal powder can lead to explosions.
  • Fire Hazard: Ensure that the work area is free from flammable materials and that fire extinguishing equipment is readily available.

Advantages Of Exothermic Welding

Benefits of Using Exothermic Welding
  • Permanent Connections: Provides a permanent bond that is not affected by environmental conditions or aging.
  • High Conductivity: Ensures excellent electrical conductivity, reducing energy losses in electrical systems.
  • Maintenance-Free: Once installed, exothermic welds require little to no maintenance, resulting in cost savings over time.
  • Versatility: Can be used to join a wide range of metals, including copper, steel, and aluminum.
  • Reliability: The welds are highly reliable and can withstand extreme conditions without degradation.

Maintenance & Storage Instructions

  • Each mold is typically suitable for 50 – 60 connections under field conditions.
  • The equipment is fragile and should be handled delicately during use to prevent damage.
  • Clean molds using an appropriate brush or tool when they have sufficiently cooled after a welding process. Avoid cleaning while the mold is hot.
  • Carefully clean mold cavities to prevent any damage or chipping.
  • After completing tasks, thoroughly clean molds both inside and outside using a soft cloth.
  • Wrap molds securely in bubble plastic packing before storing.
  • Store molds and welding powder in cool and dry environments to maintain their quality.
  • Ensure all tools and accessories are cleaned before storing to ensure safe reuse.
  • Amiable Impex offers high-quality exothermic welding powder and accessories at competitive rates in India.
  • Guaranteed delivery within 10 to 15 days across India, with a commitment to customer satisfaction.
  • Our products are rigorously tested and approved by CPRI, CE, and ROHS certified, and we hold ISO 9001:2008 certification.